Algeria / الدزاير / Cezayir

Algeria was an Ottoman vassal state from 1515 to 1830, when it was conquered by the French. It was situated between Ottoman vassal of Tunis in the east and the Sharifian Empire in the west. The Ottoman privateer brothers Oruç and Hayreddin, both known to Europeans as Barbarossa or “Red Beard”, were operating successfully off Algeria from 1516, and asked for the protection of the Ottoman Empire in 1516.

Egypt / مَصر / Mısır

Egypt became an Eyalet after the Egypt region came under the direct rule in 1517 with the victory of Sultan Selim I over the Mamluks. The interruption of the Napoleon’s campaign in Egypt and Syria allowed Muhammad Ali’s seizure of power from Ottoman Hurshid Pasha and the founding of Muhammad Ali dynasty. From 1867 until 1914 the region continued as the Khedivate of Egypt, an autonomous tributary state of the Ottomans.

Ethiopia / ኢትዮጵያ / Etiyopya

Relations between the Ethiopian and Ottomans were long contentious, the most notable expression being the Ethiopian-Adal War in the early 16th century, the Adal Sultanate serving as Ottoman proxy. Formal diplomatic relations were established in 1896. Relations were good during the reign of Haile Selassie, but it got soured during the Derg period, with the difference in posture between pro-Western and pro-Soviet Ethiopians.

Kenya / Kenya / Kenya

Turkish-Kenyan relations can be traced back to the 16th century where the Ottomans started to trade goods with Kenya.

Libya / ليبيا‎ / Libya

The coastal region of what is today Libya was ruled by the Ottomans from 1551 to 1864 as an Eyalet and from 1864 to 1912 as a Viyalet. The Karamanli dynasty ruled the province as de facto hereditary monarchs from 1711 to 1835, despite remaining under nominal Ottoman rule and suzerainty from Kostantiniyye. The Ottoman name literally means “Tripoli in the West” since the state already had another Tripoli in the east.

Morocco / المغرب / Fas

Relations between Turks and Moroccans spanned a period of several centuries, from the early 16th century to the 19th century when Northern Africa was taken over by France, until modern times. The Ottomans had been constantly reinforcing their presence in northern Africa and this history constitutes a strong basis for the current bilateral relations.

Niger / Niger / Nijer

The Sultanate of Agadez was founded in 1449 by the Tuareq and Hausa people as a trading post. According to the local legend, the people send an diplomatic mission to the Ottomans for a ruler of the sultanate after which the sultan send his son Yusuf, from an African concubine, to lead the African sultanate. Agadez was the furthermost extent of the Ottomans on the African continent until the French occupation in the 19th century.

Somalia / Soomaaliya / Somali

Relations between the present-day territories of Somalia and Turkey date back to the Middle Ages. The Ajuran Empire and Adal Sultanate maintained good trade and military relations with the Ottomans. The Ajuran received assistance from the Ottomans as a key ally during the Ajuran-Portuguese wars. The Ottomans also had a great relationships with the Adal Sultanate, in which the two states were allies during the Ethiopian-Adal conflict.

South Africa / Suid-Afrika* / Güney Afrika Cumhuriyeti

* There are eleven official names of South Africa, one in each of its eleven official languages. The number is surpassed only by India. These languages include English, Afrikaans, the Nguni languages (Zulu, Xhosa, Ndebele, and Swazi), as well as the Sotho-Tswana languages (Tswana, Sotho and Pedi), Venda and Tsonga.

The Ottomans established relations with colonial South Africa, which was then part of the British Empire, in 1861. They maintained relations until the outbreak of World War I, when the Ottomans entered the war on the side of the German Empire, whereas the Union of South Africa entered alongside the British. Turkey stood in consistent opposition to the white minority governments and also promoted the independence of Namibia.

Sudan / السودان‎ / Sudan

Sudan and Turkey have enjoyed a relatively close relationship, owning by previous historical links between the two since the Ottomans. Sudan and Turkey both share an Ottoman legacy. The Ottomans conquered Sudan in early 19th century, which marked the era as Turkiyah. Under the Turkiyah, Sudanese slavery was soon abolished and economy of Sudan started to improve. Resistance to Ottoman rule started in the 1870s.

Tunesia / تونس / Tunus

The first Ottoman conquest of Tunis took place in 1534 under the command of Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha, who was the Kapudan Pasha of the Ottoman Fleet during the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent. However, it wasn’t until the final Ottoman reconquest of Tunis from Spain in 1574 under Kapudan Pasha Uluç Ali Reis that the Turks permanently acquired the former Hafsid Tunesia, retained it until the French occupation of Tunisia in 1881.

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