Azerbaijan / Azərbaycan / Azerbaycan

Azerbaijan became the third democratic republic in the Turkic world and Muslim world, when it was founded in Tiflis on 28 May 1918 after the collapse of the Russian Empire. The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1920 as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. The modern Republic of Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence on 30 August 1991, shortly before the dissolution of the USSR.

Japan / 日本 / Japonya

Relations between the two countries started in the 19th century. A foundational event occurred in 1890, when the Turkish frigate Ertuğrul sank off the coast of Wakayama. In the 1930s, the Japanese invited an Ottoman prince, Abdulkerim, to assist them in setting up a puppet state in Xinjiang with the Ottoman Prince as Sultan. As hostilities during the Iran-Iraq War escalated, Turkey sent an aircraft in to rescue 215 Japanese nationals.

Karakalpakstan / Qaraqalpaqstan / Karakalpakistan

* Karakalpakstan is an autonomous region of Uzbekistan.

For many years, the region of what is now Karakalpakstan was a thriving agricultural area. Karakalpak people, who used to be nomadic herders and fishers, were first recorded in the 16th century. Karakalpakstan was ceded to the Russian Empire by the Khanate of Khiva in 1873. Under Soviet rule, it was an autonomous area before becoming part of Uzbekistan in 1936. Because of the Soviet drainage of the Aral Sea, it is one of Uzbekistan’s poorest regions.

Kazakhstan / Qazaqstan / Kazakistan

The territory of Kazakhstan has historically been inhabited by Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz. Being part of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan was the last Soviet republic to declare independence from the Soviet Union.

Kyrgyz Republic / Kırğız Respublikası / Kırgızistan Cumhuriyeti

The Kyrgyz Republic has a recorded history that spans over 2,000 years, encompassing a variety of cultures and empires. Although geographically isolated by it highly mountainous terrain, it has been at the crossroads of several great civilizations as part of the Silk Road and other commercial and cultural routes. Though long inhabited by a succession of independent tribes and clans, it has periodically fallen under foreign domination.

Myanmar / မြန်မာ / Myanmar

During World War I, around twelve thousand soldiers of the Ottoman Army fell into the hand of British Forces, during the Sinai, Palestine and Mesopotamian campaigns. The Ottoman prisoners of war were transferred to Burmaand were forced to work in the construction of railroads, bridges and artificial lakes. More than 1500 soldiers died as a result of epidemics, hard physical labor conditions and cruel treatment.

Republic of Korea / 대한민국 / Kore Cumhuriyeti

Contacts between Turks and Koreans can be traced back to antiquity, when the Göktürks had supported Goguryeo during their expansion and also assisted them against Han Chinese forces. The Republic of Turkey have enjoyed a longstandig relationship with Korea, since its formation. Turkey was second country, after the United States of America, to reply to the military aid request by the United Nations during the Korean War.

Turkey / Türkiye

The Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president. Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought, philosophy, and customs into the new form of Turkish government.

Turkmenistan / Türkmenistan

Turkmenistan has been at the crossroads of civilizations for centuries. In medieval times, Merv was one of the great cities of the Islamic world and an important stop on the Silk Road until the mid-15th century. Annexed by the Russian Empire in 1881, Turkmenistan later figured prominently in the anti-Bolshevik movement in Central Asia. Between 1925 and 1991, it was a constituent republic of the Soviet Union.

Uzbekistan / O’zbekiston / Özbekistan

In ancient times it was part of the Iranian speaking region of Transoxiana and Turan. During the Turkic period, cities such as Samarkand, Khiva and Bukhara began to grow rich from the Silk Road. Starting from the Khwarezmians, Timur Empire and Uzbek Shaybanids. The region was split into three states: Khiva, Kokand and Bukhara. It was gradually incorporated into the Russian Empire during the 19th century.

Yemen / ٱلْيَمَن‎ / Yemen

The Ottomans had two fundamental interests to safeguard in Yemen: The Islamic holy cities of Mecca and Medina and the trade route with India in spices and textiles. With both being threatened in the early 16th century.Hadım Suleiman Pasha was ordered to command a fleet to conquer Yemen. The Ottomans returned to the Tihama in 1849 after an absence of two centuries continued to rule the area until their departure in 1918.

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