Nakhchivan is the capital of the Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic of Azerbaijan, which is located between Armenia, Iran and Turkey. After his defeat at the Battle of Shamkor, Atabeg Nusrat al-Din Abu Bakr temporary took refuge in the city in 1195. In 1225, Nakhchivan was ruled by the daughter of Atabeg Muhammad Jahan Pahlavan. The city was conquered by Timur in 1401, but was taken by King George VII of Georgia in 1405.
The city was conquered by Shah Ismail I in 1503, and reconquered by Shah Abbas I from the Ottomans in 1603 – 1604. Nakhchivan was annexed to the Russian Empire following the Treaty of Turkmenchay in 1828.
The Ottomans occupied Nakhchivan from June until November 1918, after which the city was occupied by British soldiers in 1919. It was decided that Nakhichevan would be granted to Armenia on 6 April 1919, and the city was annexed on 6 June 1919. However, in March 1920, Turkish forces led by Kâzım Karabekir occupied Nakhichevan. Soviet Russia took control of Nakhichevan on 28 July 1920, and the city became part of the newly formed Nakhichevan Soviet Socialist Republic. The Treaty of Moscow of 16 March 1921, and later the Treaty of Kars of 21 October 1921, between Russia and Turkey agreed that Nakhichevan would be an autonomous territory under the protection of Azerbaijan and delimited its borders with Turkey.