Albania / Shqipëria / Arnavutluk

Relations between Albania and Turkey date from the arrival of the Ottomans in the region in the 15th century. Many Albanians during the Ottoman period converted to the official religion Islam and contributed through administrative, political and military positions to the Ottoman empire and culturally to the wider Muslim world. Albania was also deeply culturally influenced by the Ottoman Turks.

Austria / Österreich / Avusturya

The rivalling Austrian and Ottoman empires waged frequent wars against each other over control of much Central Europe and the Balkans. During its peak, the Ottoman Empire threatened to conquer the Austrian capital of Vienna twice in 1529 and 1683. After the end of the Great Turkish War in 1699, however, the Habsburgs gained the upper hand, and captured Hungary and Croatia from the Ottomans.

Bosnia – Herzegovina / Bosna i Hercegovina / Bosna – Hersek

The Ottoman conquest of Bosnia and Herzegovina started in 1384 and the Ottoman invasion expanded into the so-called Bosansko Krajište. The Kingdom of Bosnia finally fell in 1463. Herzegovina fell to the Turks in 1482. Bosnia legally continued under the royal House of Berislavić and fell finally in 1527 with the fall of its capital Jajce. The Ottoman rule lasted for over four hundred years, until 1878.

Bulgaria / България / Bulgaristan

The conquest by the Ottomans of the smaller kingdoms emerging from the disintegrating Second Bulgarian Empire in the late 14th century started the nearly 500 years of Ottoman history in Bulgaria. As a result of the Russo-Turkish War, the Principality of Bulgaria was created. In 1885 the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia came under the control of the Bulgarian Tsar. Bulgaria declared independence in 1908.

Cyprus / Κύπρος / Kıbrıs 

In 1570, a full-scale Ottoman assault with 60,000 troops brought the island under Ottoman control. The ratio of Muslims to Christians fluctuated throughout the preriod of Ottoman domination, with a growing Muslim majority until 1777 back to a Christian majority in 1872. While Cyprus was leased to the British Empire after 1878, it remained a de jure Ottoman territory until 5 November 1914.

France / France / Fransa

Relations between France and the Ottomans cover a long period starting from the 16th century. Relations remained essentially friendly during a period of nearly three centuries. Relations became more complex with the invasion of the Ottoman territory of Egypt and the dawn of the modern era. The two countries have been in a state of war three times, during Napoleon’s Egypt-Syria campaign, WWI and the Turkish War of Independence.

Gagauzia / Gagauz Yeri / Gagavuzya

* Gagauzia is an autonomous region of Moldova.

The eastern part of the Principality of Moldovia was annexed by the Russian empire from the Ottomans. Nogai tribes who inhabited the region were forced to leave, while the Gagauz people were relocated from Ottoman Bulgaria to this area. The Gagauz had a five-day de facto independence in 1906 with the Republic of Comrat. The Gagauz Republic was de facto independent from 1990 tot 1994, but later peacefully joined Moldova.

Greece / Ελλάς / Yunanistan

Most of mainland Greece and the Aegean islands was under Ottoman control by the end of the 15th century, while Crete remained Venetian territory and did not fall to the Ottomans until 1670. The only part of the Greek-speaking world that escaped long-term Ottoman rule was the Ionian Islands, which remained Venetian until their capture by the First French Republic in 1797. The last change of territorial expansion was with the Treaty of Lausanne.

Hungary / Magyarország / Macaristan

After some 150 years of wars with the Hungarians and other states, the Ottomans gained a decisive victory over the Hungarian army at the Battle of Mohács in 1526, where King Louis II died while fleeing. Ottoman rule covered mostly the southern territories of the former medieval Kingdom of Hungary as almost the entire region of the Great Hungarian Plain and Southern Transdanubia. Hungary was ruled by the Ottomans until 1699.

Ireland / Éire / İrlanda

During the Irish potato famine of the 1840s, Ottoman Sultan Abdülmecid donated £1,000 to famine relief. A letter written by Irish notables in the Ottoman archives explicitly thanks the Sultan for his help. According to legend, the Sultan had originally intended to send £10,000, but either British diplomats or his own ministers requested that the Sultan send only £1,000, so as not to donate more than Queen Victoria, who had sent £2,000.

Kosovo / Kosova / Kosova

* Kosovo is recognized as an independent country by Turkey, while Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan opposed the recognition of Kosovo as an independent country.

In the 1389 Battle of Kosovo, Ottoman forces defeated a coalition led by Lazar Hrebeljanović. Kosovo was part of the Ottoman Empire from 1455 to 1912, at first as part of the eyalet of Rumelia, and from 1864 as a separate vilayet. During this time, Islam was introduced to the population. After the Ottomans’ defeat in the First Balkan War in 1913, Kosovo was ceded to the Kingdom of Montenegro and the Kingdom of Serbia.

Malta / Malta / Malta

Malta has been the scene of two Ottoman attacks. The Invasion of Gozo took place in July 1551 and was accomplished by the Ottoman Empire against the island of Gozo, following an unsuccessful attempt to conquer nearby Malta. The Great Siege of Malta took place in 1565 when the Ottoman Empire tried to invade the island of Malta, then held by the Knights Hospitaller. The Knights withstood the siege and repelled the invaders.

Moldova / Moldova / Moldova

The territory of modern Moldova experienced many invasions in late antiquity and the Early Middle Ages, including by Huns, Avars, Bulgarians, Magyars, Pechenegs, Cumans, Mongols and Tatars. The first confrontation with the Ottomans took place at Cetatea Albă in 1420. During this time, Moldavia was invaded repeatedly by Crimean Tatars and the Turks. In 1538, the principality became a tributary to the Ottomans.

Montenegro / Crna Gora / Karadağ

Large portions of Montenegro fell under the control of the Ottomans from 1496. Montenegro developed a unique form of autonomy within the Ottoman State, with freedom for Montenegrin clans from certain restrictions. Independence was recognised in 1878, but soon diplomatic relations were established with the Ottomans, ushered in about 30 years of peace between the two until the deposition of sultan Abdülhamid II in 1909.

North Macedonia / Северна Македонија / Kuzey Makedonya

The Balkans were divided when the Ottomans entered into Europe. Gradually, all of the central Balkans were conquered by the Ottomans and remained under its domination for five centuries as part of the Eyalet of Rumelia. After an administrative reform the region of central Albania and western North Macedonia became a separate province in 1867 until the end of Ottoman rule in 1912.

Northern Cyprus / Kuzey Kıbrıs

* The Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is recognized as an independent country by Turkey, while Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan opposed the recognition of Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus as an independent country.

In 1570, a full-scale Ottoman assault with 60,000 troops brought the island under Ottoman control. The ratio of Muslims to Christians fluctuated throughout the preriod of Ottoman domination, with a growing Muslim majority until 1777 back to a Christian majority in 1872. It remained a de jure Ottoman territory until 5 November 1914. Northern Cyprus unilateral declared itself independent in 1983.

Romania / România / Romanya

The nomadic Avars established a powerful empire in the area of current day Romania. The Bulgars occupied the Lower Danube region in 680. Significant Pecheneg groups fled to the Byzantine Empire in the 1040s; the Oghuz Turks followed them and later the nomadic Cumans became the dominant power. The Golden Horde emerged as the dominant power of Eastern Europe. The Ottomans took possession of the territory starting in 1388.

Serbia / Србија / Sırbistan

All of the Serbian lands were conquered by the Ottomans. Serbian resistance continued in Vojvodina until 1537. Belgrade and regions of Syrmia, Bačka, and Banat were already conquered up to 1552. Ottoman rule was however constantly challenged by rebelions and continuing wars. In 1699 and 1718 most of central Serbia was lost, but the Ottomans regained the region in 1739. It was during the Balkan Wars when the Ottomans lost the area.

The Netherlands / Nederland / Hollanda

During the Dutch Revolt, Willem of Orange hoped to lend some money to finance his war against Spain. The Dutch came in contact with the Ottomans via Don Juan Miquez. He was a rich Jewish banker from Spain, which fled to Konstantiniye during the inquisition. Both the Ottomans and Dutch had a common enemy: the Spanish. The diplomatic relations widely encompass and span four centuries, beginning in 1612.

Turkey / Türkiye

Turkish War of Independence, initiated by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk and his colleagues against occupying Allied Powers, resulted in the abolition of monarchy in 1922 and the establishment of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, with Atatürk as its first president. Atatürk enacted numerous reforms, many of which incorporated various aspects of Western thought, philosophy, and customs into the new form of Turkish government.

Україна / Ukraine / Ukrayna

Bolgars, Huns, Khazars and Tatars took over much of the Ukrainian lands. The Crimean Khanate was founded in Crimea and surrounding steppes. Formed from Golden Horde territory conquered after the Mongol invasion, the Crimean Khanate was one of the strongest powers in Eastern Europe until the 18th century. In 1571 it even captured and devastated Moscow. The last remnant of the Crimean Khanate was conquered in 1783.

United Kingdom / Birlesik Kraliyeti

Relations between the British and Turks started during the British Empire and the Ottoman Empire. The two were side-by-side, such as in the Crimean War, or they have been at war several times, such as within the First World War. The Ottomans send ambassadors to Europe on a temporary and limited basis and it was not until 1798, when they send Yusuf Agah Efendi to London as the first resident Ottoman ambassador.

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