България / Bulgaristan
The region was conquered by the Roman Empire in 45 AD. The Byzantine Empire lost some of these territories to an invading Bulgar horde in the late 7th century. The Bulgars, a Turkic tribe, founded the First Bulgarian Empire in 681, which dominated most of the Balkans and significantly influenced Slavic cultures by developing the Cyrillic script.
This state lasted until the early 11th century, when Byzantine emperor Basil II conquered and dismantled it. A successful Bulgarian revolt in 1185 established a Second Bulgarian Empire, which reached its apex under Ivan Asen II (1218–1241). After numerous exhausting wars and feudal strife, the Second Bulgarian Empire disintegrated in 1396 and its territories fell under Ottoman rule for nearly five centuries.
The conquest by the Ottomans of the smaller kingdoms emerging from the disintegrating Second Bulgarian Empire in the late 14th century started the nearly 500 years of Ottoman history in Bulgaria. As a result of the Russo-Turkish War, the Principality of Bulgaria was created. In 1885 the autonomous province of Eastern Rumelia came under the control of the Bulgarian Tsar. Bulgaria declared independence in 1908.